Tag Archives: Bradford

100. Brains for Industry: Dr Richardson’s Campaign for Technological Universities

In 1943, Dr Harry Richardson, Principal of the Bradford Technical College, sensed an opportunity.  Since his appointment as Principal in 1920, Dr Richardson had persisted with the ongoing quest for university status for the College (see Object 49).  However, by 1930, complete discouragement meant he had put the matter aside to await fresh developments.

Dr Harry Richardson with students at Bradford Technical College, from Frank Hill's Lecture on “Careers in the Wool Industry” 1955 (Univ/HIL)

Dr Harry Richardson with students at Bradford Technical College, from Frank Hill’s Lecture on “Careers in the Wool Industry” 1955 (Univ/HIL)

In 1943, the British government was thinking about plans for improving society once the Second World War was over.  Education was key.  The progress of the War had highlighted the need for “brains for industry”: a skilled and well educated workforce who could create and manage new technologies.  This could not be supplied by the existing ramshackle educational system, which was radically overhauled in the resulting legislation, the Education Act of 1944.

Technical education was of particular concern.  Colleges (like Bradford’s) had grown up to train workers in local industries but there was no central planning to enable the country to develop university level technological “brains”.  In April 1944, the Education Minister (R.A. Butler) appointed a Special Committee, chaired by Lord Eustace Percy, “to consider the needs of higher technological education in England and Wales”.

Bradford Technical College Engineer Cadet Course, 10 months, RAF, first group, c1942 (BTC 8/3)

Bradford Technical College Engineer Cadet Course, 10 months, RAF, first group, c1942 (BTC 8/3)  This illustrates how the College was supporting the war effort by providing training.

Harry Richardson was not just concerned with enhancing Bradford’s status.  He understood the growing gap between the needs of industry and what technical colleges could offer while in local authority control.  He argued the best way to improve technical education was for some such colleges to become university colleges, allowing them to specialise, develop their own curricula and form better links with industry.

Cover of correspondence file of Dr Richardson, Bradford Technical College (BTC 1/107).

Cover of correspondence file of Dr Richardson, Bradford Technical College (BTC 1/107).

Special Collections holds Dr Richardson’s files of correspondence and press cuttings documenting his campaigning activity from 1943: writing memoranda and letters to newspapers and contacting key people (the Privy Council, the Ministry, the University Grants Committee, Percy Committee members, such as Dr Lowery of the South-West Essex Technical College).  Crucially, he also nurtured support for his ideas among Bradford businessmen, councillors and the local newspapers.

Letter from Hopkinson of the Bradford Dyers' Association, 1 October 1943, praising Richardson's recent letter to The Times newspaper and agreeing with the need for the country to invest in technological education (BTC 1/107)

Letter from Hopkinson of the Bradford Dyers’ Association, 1 October 1943, praising Richardson’s recent letter to The Times newspaper and agreeing with the need for the country to invest in technological education (BTC 1/107)

The Percy Committee published its report, addressed to the new Minister of Education (Ellen Wilkinson), in 1945.  Among its recommendations, the report called for the setting up of a limited number of technical colleges “in which there should be developed technological courses of a standard comparable with that of University degree courses”.

Ten years later, this proposal became reality: in 1956 following the publication of the White Paper on technical education, a small number of technical colleges which would “concentrate entirely on advanced studies” were designated.  Bradford was one of these eight Colleges of Advanced Technology (CATs).

Percy had argued that advanced colleges would be more adaptable to industry needs if they were not set up as universities.  In practice this caused problems for the CATs: they were universities in all other ways but lacked the power, autonomy and funding that the new “plateglass” universities had from the outset.  The Robbins Committee addressed this concern, reporting in 1963 that the CATs should become “technological universities”; Bradford received its Charter in 1966.

Retirement presentation to Principal Richardson, 1957, of a solid silver reproduction George I coffee service and salver.  Principal Richardson is the central figure (BTC 8/3)

Retirement presentation to Principal Richardson, 1957, of a solid silver reproduction George I coffee service and salver. Richardson is the central figure (BTC 8/3),

Richardson retired shortly after the CATs were announced and died four months before the University came into being.  He had played a vital role in these developments.  He and his colleagues had maintained the high academic standards that were needed for the institution to be recognised as a CAT and his indefatigable lobbying maintained local support and ensured the city’s claim to a University could not be forgotten by those in power.

Sources: “Brains for industry” is a quotation from a Times Higher Education leading article of 10 November 1945 which endorsed Richardson’s call for technical colleges to become university colleges.  McKinlay covers in detail the long and complicated story of Richardson’s campaigns and the development of technological universities.

Advertisements

97. To the Caverns of Castleton: the Bradford Technical College Staff Outings

On 14 July 1933, 29 members of staff of Bradford Technical College had a grand day out in the Peak District!  They travelled to Castleton, Dovedale and Buxton in a “chara” (charabanc) provided by Bullock & Sons of Wakefield.

Charabancs available from S. Thompson of Sutton-in-Craven (BTC 3/12/2)

Charabancs – we don’t have an image of J. Bullock’s coaches; these similar ones were advertised by S. Thompson of Sutton-in-Craven (BTC 3/12/2)

The morning featured a trip to the Great Peak Cavern, followed by a roast lunch at the Castleton Restaurant.  The coach then took the staff via Hathersage and Chatsworth, dropping them at Dovedale for a three mile walk, and tea at the Peveril of the Peak hotel: bread and butter, paste and cucumber sandwiches, jam, lettuce, and “plain and fancy cakes”.

Menu for the Castleton Restaurant, where the 1933 Bradford Technical College Staff Outing had luncheon (BTC 3/12/2).

Menu for the Castleton Restaurant, where the 1933 Bradford Technical College Staff Outing had luncheon (BTC 3/12/2). We don’t alas know which menu they chose!

We discovered the Castleton day out while enhancing the old catalogue of the Bradford Technical College Archive.  Among our finds was a delightful set of papers about the Staff Outings of the 1930s and 1940s, full of details about routes, menus, attendance etc. The trips were organised for the Staff Association of the College, by its Hon. Secretary.   In 1933 this was Mr R.G. Oversby, who observed in his report to the General Meeting, that “all taking part had a most enjoyable time”.  29 was a good turnout: previous trips had fewer numbers or even had to be abandoned through lack of interest, which rather irked Mr Oversby.

Flyer advertising The Great Peak Cavern in Castleton, visited by the 1933 Bradford Technical College Staff Outing (BTC 3/12/2)

Flyer advertising The Great Peak Cavern in Castleton, visited by the 1933 Bradford Technical College Staff Outing (BTC 3/12/2)

The trips were part of a long tradition within the Technical College, taking advantage of the many beauty spots and heritage sites within easy reach of Bradford, such as the Lake District, Whitby and Malham.

Group photograph Bradford Technical College.  We think this was taken on a Staff Outing, probably circa 1908 or 1909  (BTC 2/35)

Group photograph Bradford Technical College. We think this was taken on a Staff Outing, probably circa 1908 or 1909 (BTC 2/35)

The College had a small, close-knit (and overwhelmingly male) teaching staff.  The activities of the Staff Association helped build this sense of community.  As well as organising Outings and other social activities, they supported members (and their widows and orphans) and negotiated with management.

The material concerning the Staff Association is a wonderful and little-tapped source, not just about the College, but about education, leisure, and above all Bradford itself. The College had come into being to meet the training needs of local textile industries and its staff and students were part of the rich social, cultural and industrial life memorably portrayed in J.B. Priestley’s Bradford writings.

The Outings illustrate this well: local connections and family members often came along (witness the children in the above photograph, probably sons of the staff).  Typically, the Secretary of the Bradford Teachers’ Association, Mr Foster Sutherland, was part of the 1933 trip.  He seems to have been an influential local official and Mr Oversby observes that “many were able to profit by private conversations” with him during the day …

Look out for a new edition of the Bradford Technical College Archive catalogue later this year, which will make it much easier for researchers to discover this important historical resource.

Menu for afternoon tea at the Peveril of the Peak hotel in Thorpe, Derbyshire, visited by Bradford Technical College staff.  "Trust House" menu suggests that the hotel was part of a larger group of country inns.  (BTC 3/12/2)

Menu for afternoon tea at the Peveril of the Peak hotel in Thorpe, Derbyshire, visited by Bradford Technical College staff.  (BTC 3/12/2)  Presumably one of the “Trust Houses”, country inns managed as a group to ensure their survival, with emphasis on food rather than alcohol.

Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

Special Collections is closed for the Christmas break from 23 December-3 January inclusive.   Join us then to meet the last 5 Objects in this exhibition.  Meanwhile, we’d like to wish everyone a very merry Christmas and a happy 2014.

BLP31Poinsettia cr

Our Christmas greeting, featuring a Poinsettia from one of our favourite books.

In Object no. 41 we glimpsed some Christmas fun at Bradford Technical College.

93. Your Starter for Ten: Bradford’s University Challenge

On 28 January 1979 a team of students from Bradford University triumphed against Lancaster University in the final of University Challenge, 215 points to 160.

Bradford University's University Challenge winning team and the reserve

Bradford University’s University Challenge winning team: Watt, Lee (reserve), Bradford, Simkin and Cooter

University Challenge is a notoriously difficult and fast-moving television quiz.  Produced by Granada Television, the original programme was presented by Bamber Gascoigne and ran from 1962 to 1987.   It was revived by the BBC in 1994 with presenter Jeremy Paxman (an honorary graduate of Bradford University) and is still running today.  Contestants are usually university students although there have been series which used different formats.

The Bradford University team of 1979 boasted three postgraduate computer science students (John Watt, Mike Bradford, John Simkin).   The other team members were Maxwell Cooter, an Interdisciplinary Human Studies student, and a reserve, Martin Lee, a postgraduate in Social Sciences.

The dominance of computer scientists apparently “amused and bemused” Bradford’s opponents, though in fact the three were studying conversion courses.  Along with their colleagues, they had excellent general knowledge spanning key subjects such as classical music, literature, sport and art.

The team actually criticised the University Challenge format, which they felt “tested school rather than at university learning” and called for “fast recall of fairly shallow or even trivial knowledge, rather than the analysis or coherent pattern which University education should develop.”   They emphasised that it was no measure of intellectual ability, and might even mislead the public about the nature of students and university life.

Bradford University's University Challenge winning team reunited for a special series in 2002: Lee, Bradford, Simkin and Cooter

Bradford University’s University Challenge winning team reunited for a special series in 2002: Lee, Bradford, Simkin and Cooter

The University of Bradford’s Corp Comms managed to track down three members of the team for a 2002 series celebrating forty years of the programme: University Challenge Reunited.  Bradford, Simkin and Cooter were joined by the reserve, Martin Lee.    The team lost narrowly to their 1979 final opponents, Lancaster, but enjoyed the experience.   John Watt saw the event on television and got in touch later on.

A Bradford University team who took part in the 2003/04 season were less successful, scoring a mere 35 points in their first-round match on 15 December 2003 against Queen’s University Belfast, who scored 280.

Whatever the scores though, the programme has provided plenty of entertainment.  As Bradford’s winning team observed,  “It seems that this sort of quiz would be best approached in a mildly egotistical mood, as a load of laughs, proving nothing in particular!”

Notes and queries.  There is some confusion around the years of wins, partly caused by inconsistencies in listing styles by the programme makers.  Bradford’s win is often attributed to 1980, as can be seen in the 2002 image above.   Mr Cooter’s first name is “Steve” in the News Sheet article, but “Maxwell” elsewhere.

Sources. Quotations from News Sheet March 1979 p.3-4 and 21 and News and Views May 2002 p.7.  (also online, the 2002 press release seeking the 1979 team).  I have also found many other sources useful, including the BBC site and sites by enthusiasts Blanchflower (useful on statistics and the issue of the varying years of wins) and UK gameshows.

85. Quill the Hedgehog and the Keighley Detectives: John Waddington-Feather’s Yorkshire writings

Meet Quill the Hedgehog!  In a series of books by Yorkshire author John Waddington-Feather, Quill and his animal friends have many adventures fighting the wicked plans of alleycat Mungo Brown and his Wastelander rats.

Front cover of Quill's Adventures in Kangarooland by John Waddington-Feather

John first created Quill during the 1960s to express concern about the environment: Mungo and co destroy and pollute the lands they take from the woodland creatures.  In Quill’s Adventures in Grozzieland, Mungo takes over the fungus folk and plans to blot out the sun!  This volume was nominated for the Carnegie Medal in 1989.

The Quill stories are partly inspired by the fate of Yorkshire’s West Riding countryside during the rapid urbanisation of the 19th century, the downside of the wool industry boom.  In a recent email, John observed that a chapter in Quill’s Adventures in the Great Beyond was inspired by an oil painting of Keighley in Cliffe Castle Museum (itself once a mill-owner’s mansion).   The painting shows the first industrial chimneys appearing in a rural scene; within a few decades Keighley was a “dirty, smoke-ridden mill and engineering town of over 40,000 people. Slums appeared overnight and the rivers and streams around the town polluted”.  This image from the cover of Great Beyond shows Quill and Horatio the cat confronted by the changed landscape of their home.

https://i1.wp.com/www.yesteryearbooks.eu/images/036443.jpg

Quill is just part of the story.  John Waddington-Feather is a prolific author, a schoolteacher (now retired) and an Anglican priest.  Born in Keighley in 1933, he attended Keighley Boys’ Grammar School and graduated in English at Leeds University in 1954.  John has been based in Shrewsbury for many years, where he has been a visitor and assistant chaplain at the prison. He retains strong connections with Yorkshire: former Chair of the J.B. Priestley Society and now one of its Vice-Presidents, John has a scholarly interest in Yorkshire dialect (e.g. John Hartley) and literature.

Front cover of Ira and the Cycling Club Lion by John Waddington-Feather, showing image of Keighley Cycling Club

Front cover of Ira and the Cycling Club Lion by John Waddington-Feather, showing image of Keighley Cycling Club

John’s Yorkshire heritage can be seen throughout his writings.  Witness the Blake Hartley series, which features detectives Blake Hartley and Ibrahim Khan investigating crimes around Keighworth (i.e. Keighley) and the Dales while dealing with their difficult boss.  Bodies found in the graveyard or on the allotment lead the pair into deadly webs of international crime, money-laundering and terrorism …

John also writes for the stage, including two light-hearted plays in verse, Garlic Lane and Easy Street.  These are based on his childhood memories, as many of  his short stories and essays (some collected in the above book).  Yorkshire features again in two historical romances set around the Second World War: Illingworth House and Chance-Child.

Many of John’s writings also reflect his Christian faith and his experiences as a priest: he has written many hymns, songs and poems and edits the Poetry Church series on Christian poetry.  His play The Lollipop Man was based on his experiences of working with homeless people.

Special Collections staff are working with John to develop an archive of his work and interests, including typescripts, correspondence and of course the books.   Much of the archive is born-digital, reflecting John’s early adoption of new technology such as selling his books online via his website.  Now he’s finding new audiences via the Kindle e-reader!   The Blake Hartley mysteries  are proving particularly popular; the Quill titles are now being added.

84. In Memory of the 56: The Papers of the Popplewell Inquiry into the Bradford City Fire

On 11 May 1985, 56 people who went to watch a football match between Bradford City and Lincoln City at Bradford’s Valley Parade ground were killed by a terrible fire.  Many others suffered horrific burns.   A Committee of Inquiry, chaired by Sir Oliver Popplewell, was set up under the Safety of Sports Grounds Act 1975 to investigate the causes of the fire.  Its Interim Report, published in July 1985, concluded that the fire had been caused by a lighted cigarette or match igniting piles of litter under the stand.

Bradford City Fire Disaster Memorial, from Tim Green aka atoach's flickr stream (licence CC BY 2.0)

Bradford City Fire Disaster Memorial, from Tim Green aka atoach’s flickr stream (licence CC BY 2.0)

The account of the start and spread of the fire is shocking: litter had been allowed to pile up for years (a similar pile under Block C contained a 1968 newspaper and a pre-decimal packet of peanuts).   The stand was made of wood and roofed with asphalt, which fed the flames and, melting, caused more injuries.  The fire took hold “quicker than a man could run”: within minutes, the whole stand was ablaze, fanned by fierce winds.  Matters were made worse by inadequate exits and fire extinguishers, and many other practical and managerial problems, concisely outlined by Sir Oliver in his report.  He also covered the fatal riot at Birmingham City’s football ground, which took place the same day as the Bradford fire.

The Committee gathered further evidence, including material relating to the Heysel Stadium disaster of 29 May, and published its Final Report the following year.  Both reports contain important and detailed recommendations on the construction and management of sports grounds.  Sir Oliver donated the evidence gathered by the Inquiry to the University of Bradford in 1999.  The papers  include more information about the three disasters, insights into the work of the Inquiry and the football and sporting cultures of the time.

'Big flag' commemorating the 56 who died in the Bradford City fire 11 May 1985.  Bradford City v Swansea City, Wembley 1985.  From stephoto27's flickr stream (licence CC BY-ND 2.0).

‘Big flag’ commemorating the 56 who died in the Bradford City fire 11 May 1985. Bradford City v Swansea City, Wembley 1985. From stephoto27’s flickr stream (licence CC BY-ND 2.0).

The 56 have been remembered and worldwide audiences reminded of the story in Bradford’s fairytale Capital One cup run this year: the League Two team defeated Premiership sides including the European champions to reach the Wembley final (and at time of writing, the club is in the play-off final for promotion, which would be a wonderful end to the season).

Further reading: I recommend Paul Firth’s compelling book about the Bradford fire: Four Minutes to Hell.  As far as I know, this is the only published book about the disaster.  An excellent blog, The Bradford City Fire, brings together information about the fire from many sources, including memories of those who experienced the fire.  It also hosts digitised versions of the two Popplewell reports.

PS The University is also home to the Bradford Burns Unit (now part of the Centre for Skin Sciences), set up by Professor David Sharpe after the disaster to find new ways to help those who had been injured.

82. Italianate Baroque and Early Decorated Gothic: Historic Buildings at Emm Lane

This week, the story of two wonderful buildings which form part of the Bradford University School of Management.  Built within a decade of each other for very different purposes, both by local architects, they exemplify patterns in Bradford’s 19th century architecture.  The Emm Lane Building and Heaton Mount are situated in the leafy parkland campus of the Management School, about two and a half miles from the University’s main campus.

The front of Emm Lane building in 1996, Bradford University School of Management, from an MBA  prospectus (ref. UNI L88).

Entrance of Emm Lane Building, 1996, from an MBA prospectus (ref. UNI L88).

The Emm Lane Building was created between 1874 and 1877 as a theological college to educate ministers for the Congregational Church.  It was a new building for a college  whose long history dated back to 1756 and whose aim was to “educate young men for the Christian ministry”.

The architects, Bradford firm Lockwood and Mawson, shaped Victorian Bradford, designing both the Town Hall and the Wool Exchange (not to mention Saltaire!).   Like the former, the new Airedale Independent College had a Gothic flavour.  A report in the Leeds Mercury elaborated on the choice of Early Decorated Gothic style, considered to be particularly suitable for a college building; the architects would have liked to incorporate a “lofty and picturesque tower” into the design but this would have been too expensive.   The College building was made of “clean-cut wallstone from the Heaton quarries, with ashlar dressings” and enhanced with medieval details like the rather cute gargoyle dragon, below.

Stone dragon gargoyle, Emm Lane building, Bradford University School of Management, from flickr stream of sgwarnog2010, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 licence.

Stone dragon gargoyle, Emm Lane building, Bradford University School of Management, from flickr stream of sgwarnog2010, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 licence.

The foundation stone was laid on 16 October 1874 by Mr Titus Salt, treasurer of the institution.  His father, Sir Titus Salt, had helped support the foundation, but was too ill to attend (he died in 1876).   On 17 February 1888, for reasons of “financial economy and educational efficiency”, the Airedale College merged with the Rotherham Independent College.  The new organisation was named the Yorkshire United Independent College and based at the Bradford site.

Principal E. Griffith-Jones and Professors Duff, Armitage, Pope and Grieve on the steps of the Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford (frontispiece of Souvenir and Programme of the 1913 Semi-Jubilee).  Now Emm Lane Building at the Bradford University School of Management

Principal E. Griffith-Jones and Professors Duff, Armitage, Pope and Grieve on the steps of the Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford (frontispiece of Souvenir and Programme of the 1913 Semi-Jubilee).

By the late 1950s, the College faced dwindling student numbers and was due to merge with a college in Didsbury.  Meanwhile the newly established Bradford Institute of Technology was desperate for space, struggling to find room for the new staff, students and advanced work that its status as a College of Advanced Technology required.

Dustjacket (rather the worse for wear) of Yorkshire United Independent College by Wadworth (1954), featuring Emm Lane building.

Dustjacket (rather the worse for wear) of Yorkshire United Independent College by Wadsworth (1954), featuring Emm Lane building.

The Emm Lane Building offered a partial solution.  Purchased by BIT for £10,000, it became the home of the Department of Industrial Administration for Commerce.  In 1963, Emm Lane was designated The Management Centre; Tom Kempner was its first Director (the School celebrates its 50th anniversary this year).  The distinctive features of the College’s entrance, the “tripartite arcaded porch and large shafted oriel window”, have been part of the Centre’s marketing and visual identity ever since, witness this 1966 prospectus.

Prospectus for the Management Centre, Bradford University, 1966, showing entrance to Emm Lane building (ref. UNI L122).

Prospectus for the Management Centre, Bradford University, 1966, showing entrance to Emm Lane building (ref. UNI L122).

In 1967, BIT, which by this time had become a University, acquired Emm Lane’s near neighbour Heaton Mount.  This is a splendid “Italianate-Baroque” villa built for a wealthy wool manufacturer (see also Oakworth House!).  Heaton Mount was designed by local architect J.T. Fairbank for Robert Kell and completed in 1866.  It still boasts a terrace with splendid views, a magnificent staircase, stained glass, oak panelling, and a conservatory.   It remained in private hands until the mid-1950s (Kell and his wife until 1889, then the Ambler family, then Arthur Crossland) after which it became a convent school.  Alongside executive education, it offers facilities for conferences, weddings and other occasions.

Heaton Mount, Bradford University School of Management.  Detail from photo from Neil T's flickr stream (licence CC BY-SA 2.0).

Heaton Mount, Bradford University School of Management. Detail of photo from Neil T’s flickr stream (licence CC BY-SA 2.0).

Supplemented by several modern buildings, including a major programme completed in 2010, the Italianate villa and the Gothic college help make the Emm Lane campus a delightful setting which still gives a sense of Victorian Bradford.

Sources: this piece is based on many sources, including the National Heritage List via the English Heritage website, McKinlay’s Histories, articles in local newspapers, and books about the College at Emm Lane including Wadsworth’s history and the Souvenir of the Semi-jubilee of 1913.  Our academic colleague George Sheeran has written extensively  on Bradford’s historic buildings.  Quotations from English Heritage, a Leeds Mercury article of 17 October 1874, and Wadsworth’s book.